Glossary

.9999+ – refers to a level of purity called “four nines” pure.  It is the same as 99.99+% purity.

99.99+% – refers to a level of purity called “four nines” pure, but is written as a percentage figure.  It is the

same as .9999+ purity.

Au – the chemical symbol for silver derived from the Latin word for gold, aurum.

Anion – an atom with an extra valence electron – giving it a negative charge such as Cl –

Bio-available – refers to whether or not an atom, group of atoms or molecule is in a form that can be

adsorbed by, and used by, a biological entity such as a human being.

Bio-availability – see “Bio-available”

Cation – an atom with a missing valence electron – giving it a positive charge such as Au+

Colloid – a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance 1

Gold – a metallic chemical element with the symbol Au (Latin: aurum “gold”)and atomic number of 79.  Gold

is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal.  Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster

traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water.

Nanoparticle – A nanoparticle (or nanopowder or nanocluster or nanocrystal) is a microscopic particle with

at least one dimension less than 100 nm

Tyndall Effect – also known as Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloid or particles in

a fine suspension.  It is named after the 19th century physicist John Tyndall.  It is similar to Rayleigh

scattering, in that the intensity of the scattered light depends on the fourth power of the frequency, so blue

light is scattered much more strongly than red light 1

1 – Wikipedia March 10, 2012